SIO 210: Introduction to Physical Oceanography

Typical distributions and structures (two lectures)

Lynne Talley, Fall, 2016

Reading

  • DPO 6th edition: Chapter 4.

  • Links to powerpoints

    Powerpoint of Part I (Definitions, layered ocean)
    Download powerpoint of Part I
    pdf of powerpoint of Part I

    Powerpoint of Part II (Water masses, layered structure of ocean)
    Download powerpoint of Part II
    pdf of powerpoint of Part II


    Some figures

    Meridional sections of potential temperature
    Atlantic (25W)
    Pacific (150W)
    Indian (95E)

    Meridional sections of salinity
    Atlantic (25W)
    Pacific (150W)
    Indian (95E)

    Meridional sections of potential density
    Atlantic (25W) potential density relative to 0 dbar.
    Atlantic (25W) potential density relative to 4000 dbar.
    Atlantic (25W) neutral density (Jackett and McDougall gamma-n)
    Pacific (150W) potential density relative to 0 dbar
    Pacific (150W) potential density relative to 4000 dbar
    Pacific (150W) neutral density (Jackett and McDougall gamma-n)
    Indian (95E) potential density relative to 0, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000 dbar (click on sections). Indian (95E) neutral density (Jackett and McDougall gamma-n) (Click on section)

    Property-property relations (O2/NO3, O2/PO4, NO3/PO4, O2/SiO4) (umol/kg) Pacific - all data from WOCE P16 (150W)
    Atlantic - all data from WOCE A16 (25W)
    Indian - all data from WOCE I8/I9(95E)

    Oxygen and nutrient distributions
    Atlantic and Indian oxygen - sea surface
    Atlantic and Indian silica - sea surface
    Atlantic and Indian nitrate - sea surface
    Atlantic and Indian phosphate - sea surface
    Pacific oxygen - sea surface
    Pacific silica - sea surface
    Pacific nitrate - sea surface
    Pacific phosphate - sea surface

    Meridional sections
    Atlantic (25W) Oxygen (umol/kg)
    Atlantic (25W) Silica (umol/kg)
    Atlantic (25W) Nitrate (umol/kg)
    Atlantic (25W) Phosphate (umol/kg)

    Pacific Ocean sections along 150W Click on oxygen, silica, nitrate in particular.

    Indian Ocean sections along 95E (WOCE) (Click on oxygen, silica, nitrate in particular)

    Indian Ocean sections along 60E (WOCE) (Click on oxygen, silica, nitrate in particular)

    Very old sections (1970s):
    Indian (60E - Geosecs western ) Oxygen (umol/kg)
    Indian (60E - Geosecs western) Silica (umol/kg)
    Indian (60E - Geosecs western) Nitrate (umol/kg)
    Indian (60E - Geosecs western) Phosphate (umol/kg)


    Other resources

  • WOCE Hydrographic Program atlases: maps and vertical sections for the Atlantic, Pacific, Indian and Southern Oceans.
  • Link to J. Swift's Java Ocean Atlas http://www.epic.noaa.gov/epic/software/JavaJOA.htm
  • Link to R. Schlitzer's eWOCE atlas (http://www.ewoce.org/)

    Study questions:

    Typical profiles and vertical structures

    1. How deep is a typical mixed layer if mixed by wind? How deep can it reach if driven by cooling?
    2. What are the typical vertical temperature and salinity profiles in the subtropical and subpolar regions of the North Pacific?
    3. What are the dominant regions of net evaporation in the ocean?
    4. What are the key components of the mixed layer heat budget?
    5. Is the North Atlantic Ocean saltier or fresher on average than the Pacific? Why?
    6. What regions of the ocean are characterized by large differences from summer to winter? What regions ahve the least seasonal variability?
    7. What is the typical number of layers which people use to describe the ocean in general in mid-latitudes? What are the most general names and typical depth ranges of the layers? (Do not name a specific water mass like "North Atlantic Deep Water".)
    8. What is the volumetrically most common water on earth and where is it found?
    9. What are typical ventilation time scales for the following (a) mixed layer, (b) thermocline, (c) abyssal ocean

    SIO 210 HOME Last modified: Oct. 10 2016